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Thyroid Enlargement

Thyroid Enlargement (Goiter)

A goitre is an abnormal growth of the thyroid gland located at the base of the neck, below the Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland enlarges and causes a noticeable bulge in the neck.

The treatment of the goitre depends on its cause, symptoms, and complications.


In most cases, people with enlarged thyroids do not show any signs or symptoms other than a swelling at the base of the neck. Often, the goitre is small enough that it is only discovered during a routine medical examination or an imaging test for another condition.

Symptoms of Overactive thyroid (hyperthyroidism)
  • Weight loss
  • Rapid heartbeat (tachycardia)
  • Increased sensitivity to heat
  • Excess sweating
  • Tremors
  • Irritability and nervousness
  • Muscle weakness
  • Frequent bowel movements
  • Changes in menstrual patterns
  • Sleep difficulty
  • High blood pressure
  • Increased appetite

1. How is Goiter diagnosed?

There are several tests to confirm goiter and determine their size and location. These tests can include:

  • Physical examination
  • Blood tests
  • Thyroid ultrasound
  • Biopsy
  • Thyroid uptake and scan: This imaging test provides information on the size and function of your thyroid. In this test, a small amount of radioactive material is injected into a vein to produce an image of your thyroid on a computer screen.
  •  CT scan or MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) of your thyroid

2. How is Goiter treated?

Treatment for goiter depends on how large your thyroid has grown, its symptoms and what caused it. Treatments include medication, iodine treatment, surgery, and minimally invasive procedures, such as Thyroid Artery Embolisation and Radiofrequency Ablation.

Surgical removal of substernal or intrathoracic goiter can be a complex procedure and carries risks such as bleeding, infection, damage to surrounding structures, and vocal cord paralysis.


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